The flags indicate which authority file had at least some publications from the country or region :. Publication Statistics Publication History Selected Publishers 12 B. Send us a comment. About VIAF. ACentury of Revolution : the role of intellectuals as initiators and supporters in Women's Movements in China, Britain and France from to Mad men and Medusas : reclaiming hysteria and the effect of sibling relations on the human condition.
The phenomenon of the new lad in generalist magazines for men : contemporary english masculinity. Quelle mondialisation : Forum international Quelle mondialisation, Grande halle de La Villette, 13 et 14 novembre The early s also saw the introduction of restrictive entry measures such as aircraft carrier sanctions and waiting zones in airports Freedman Although these developments in part responded to domestic fears, as manifested in the growing popularity of the Front National from the s, they also corresponded to an international shift towards the securitisation and centralisation of asylum and immigration control Loescher Along with the privileging of economic migration over family reunification, the fight against irregular migration was a central component of this strategy which necessitated the cooperation of both bureaucrats and citizens.
Lefebvre had sought to combat criticism directed at then Immigration Minister, Eric Besson, who had previously made similar remarks. Targets were specifically stressed in the Mission letter received by the Immigration Minister from the President in July , creating an impression that local bureaucrats and police were under increasing pressure Bertossi ; Freedman This perception does not appear unfounded. Gatti explained that he would alert families the night before their deportations since morning calls reminded him too much of rafles. His conscience was awoken when he accompanied a deportee back to Algeria, only to find out eight days later that he had been killed.
Facing accusations of betrayal, Gatti framed his resistance as a moral obligation. Such practices are confirmed in various human rights reports.
Whilst proactive mobilisation is seen as the central threat in her analysis, in France, the emphasis on quotas appears to have intensified the situation through depicting even the simplest act of solidarity as a threat to the deportability of migrants through a lessening of their vulnerability. Against this backdrop, the case that intimidation was being used as a political strategy appears more than plausible, if not explicit. This is significant since the actual quotas in themselves are not that high. The impact of the immigration choisie policy on asylum seekers is perhaps implicit in the decrease in applicants from 50, in to 26, in This idea has recently been developed by Anderson, Gibney et al.
In the context of an immigration policy known as chosen immigration, which requires the cooperation of citizens in tracing and expelling deportable subjects, the key debate thus becomes who has the authority to choose who is to be expelled, and who is to be recognised within the community. This context facilitated the construction of the act of assisting vulnerable migrants as an act of resistance and politicised protection.
Although its tone is dismissive, in recognising the persistence of the debate the dossier also appears to recognise its profound resonance. This resonance can be traced to the tension between universalist and communitarian ideas of citizenship, a crucial aspect of French identity which cannot be suppressed. The next chapter will further illustrate this relationship by demonstrating how the unique political currency of universalism within the French national model meant that citizens could mobilise for the cause of vulnerable migrants in a way that was consistent with the nation.
It is argued that this frame allowed the Left to advocate for a more open conception of community that challenged the dominant discourse of the Right on immigration and national identity. It also allowed them to mobilise broad-range support, including from those who may not normally sympathise with a pro-immigrant agenda.
Two intersecting dimensions of this frame are discussed in detail: the depiction of acts of solidarity with vulnerable migrants as acts of civil disobedience and the evocation of collective historical guilt for Vichy. The state response, which can be read as a strategy of strong repression and partial concession, is interpreted as an indirect recognition of the subversive resonance of such articulations. This rooting of universal values and obligations towards outsiders within national tradition enables supporters to pre-empt criticism from the Right that they are unpatriotic and expands the breadth of the movement to a broader spectrum of citizens.
The patriotic defence presented by protesters and delegates was also dependent on their advancement of a more universalist reading of what citizen duties entail. Blisko thus follows the majority of speakers in suggesting that the issue has as much to do with public philosophy as migrant protection. She appears to implicitly twin this imperative with the memory of repression under Vichy: Minister, you have reproached me in this auditorium for not being proud of my country, for not being proud of the welcome that France gives to migrants…when you go to Calais, you remove migrants with a Bulldozer.
If you are proud of this, I am not! If you are proud of stopping, handcuffing and threatening NGO volunteers, I am not! If you are proud of the tears of children who see their friends disappear from school, I am not! Whilst it participated in a range of repressive German foreign policy goals, it is remembered for its collaboration with the mass expulsion of Jews, minorities and political opponents.
Eighty-five convoys of Jews left for the East between March and August carrying between 60, and 65, Jews Martin Will your doctor be taken in for questioning for caring for a patient without papers, or your postman for having delivered his mail? The Holocaust echo is also an underlying theme in Welcome. When the protagonist allows an Iraqi Kurdish asylum seeker heading for England to take shelter in his flat he is denounced by his neighbour and taken in by the police, the enactment of a warning issued by his ex-wife earlier on in the film.
As we have seen, the treatment of vulnerable migrants is portrayed as both an affront to human rights and an affront to national pride. However it also relates to the contempt he repeatedly expressed for his opponents in the media. In response to the press release calling for a national protest, Besson issued a similarly critical letter to the President of each signatory NGO.
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The letter was widely condemned and Besson was accused of intimidation. By recasting the shadow of Vichy onto his opponents Besson appeared to be turning criticism levelled against the government on its head. He invited representatives to form a working group to re-examine the controversial article, and advocated for the creation of a good practice guide to help NGOs avoid prosecution. Several NGOs wrote a critical letter to Besson voicing their concerns and reiterating their wish to see the article changed.
With the stress on national tropes, the participation of non-citizens in the debate was also restricted. They reify the nation-state as the dominant locus of inclusion at the very moment in which they reveal its shortcomings and seek to overcome it. This motive is widely evoked in online materials, especially those published independent from the Collectif by Secours Catholique. Appeals to religious motives are also largely absent from the parliamentary debate.
Indeed some see the national and the religious imperatives as combined.
Lenghty review in CF 77 , ff. Bongie, Exotic Memories, See Clifford, The Predicament of Culture, Le Grand Danger Terrestre 73 but it is also a place where rivers are absorbed into the sink of the ocean and where statues are subject to the entropic processes of weathering. Frontiers in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , ed. Tauris, , Body and Language in psychoanalysis The objects of desire between Real and reality : It will be a matter of reconsidering objects in the transference not only as inassimilable residues for the subject, but also, at certain moments, as the materials for subjective transformations, thanks in particular to the function of dreams when they become acts.
The statement suggests that whilst the moral authority of civil disobedience may stem from something beyond the nation, its efficacy in this context is seen to depend on national frames. The voice of the No Borders Network was nevertheless entirely absent from the public debate. A member of CMS with dual French and British nationality explained her reticence thus: My identity as an anarchist promoting no borders comes before any critique of the government qua citizen.
Do they have scores to settle with the past?
Amnesty thus took a more international stance, restricting itself to an endorsement of Welcome with reference to the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
This stance is perhaps partly explained by the distinction between moral authority and political authority outlined by Stephen Hopgood in his analysis of Amnesty. It is thus clear that competing motives encouraged citizens to act in solidarity with vulnerable migrants and caused them to defend this activity when they perceived it to be under threat. Whilst some historically resonant motives like the Christian religious imperative may be relatively compatible with the national frame, others, such as those based on the rejection of national borders or those which serve to fortify rights internationally in a depoliticised manner, appear less so.
Furthermore, they illustrate the perception that the debate was highly politicised, about something more than the protection of migrants per se. These include an Algerian charged in Lille in December , and two Guineans charged in Limoges in November of the same year. These cases raise some questions which went unaddressed in the debate.
An act of citizenship is defined as an act through which subjects constitute themselves as holders of new rights and obligations. Relations of solidarity may also serve to enfranchise the vulnerable migrant as a social subject, or as a political subject with certain entitlements. By refusing to recognise these relations as such and in attempting to reduce them to emergency appeals, the government seems to implicitly recognise this subversive potential. The patriotic framing reifies their citizen subject position, as a certain type of actor with a specific claim against the state, at the very moment in which they seek to overcome it.
In order to present their actions as acts of citizenship they would thus need to show that they were creating new political opportunity structures rather than adapting to those that already exist at the national level. The advocacy strategy of the protesters may have had wide resonance, but it restricted the possibility of more radical alternatives, stressing that the Good Samaritan was first and foremost a French citizen. In her appeal for protection, the vulnerable migrant is uniquely placed to expose this tension since she draws attention to the boundaries of the national community and to the distribution of powers to include and to exclude.
These competing interpretations were contested as both sides attempted to frame their position as a commitment to national principles. A comparative study of the criminalisation of solidarity across several European states with due consideration of opposition movements would allow us to further theorise the role of shared histories and national ideologies in filtering global duties through domestic frames.
More research could also be conducted on the role of collective guilt for Vichy crimes in shaping French responses to deportation, and on the significance of national constructions of civic duty in stimulating an ethic of mutual aid. BOYD, M. November GISTI n. The refugee in international society: between sovereigns, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. CommDH NYE, A. Key note speech, Academy of Graz, Austria, May WEIL P.
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